Education Law

Article 131, Medicine

Effective June 18, 2010

§6520. Introduction. | §6521. Definition of practice of medicine. | §6522. Practice of medicine and use of title "physician". | §6523. State board for medicine. | §6524. Requirements for a professional license. | §6525. Limited permits. | §6526. Exempt persons. | §6527. Special provisions. | § 6528. Qualification of certain applicants for licensure. | §6529. Power of board of regents regarding certain physicians.

§6520. Introduction.

This article applies to the profession of medicine. The general provisions for all professions contained in article one hundred thirty of this title apply to this article.


§6521. Definition of practice of medicine.

The practice of the profession of medicine is defined as diagnosing, treating, operating or prescribing for any human disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition.


§6522. Practice of medicine and use of title "physician".

Only a person licensed or otherwise authorized under this article shall practice medicine or use the title "physician".


§6523. State board for medicine.

A state board for medicine shall be appointed by the board of regents on recommendation of the commissioner for the purpose of assisting the board of regents and the department on matters of professional licensing in accordance with section sixty-five hundred eight of this title. The board shall be composed of not less than twenty physicians licensed in this state for at least five years, two of whom shall be doctors of osteopathy. The board shall also consist of not less than two physician's assistants licensed to practice in this state. The participation of physician's assistant members shall be limited to matters relating to article one hundred thirty-one-B of this chapter. An executive secretary to the board shall be appointed by the board of regents on recommendation of the commissioner and shall be either a physician licensed in this state or a non-physician, deemed qualified by the commissioner and board of regents.


§6524. Requirements for a professional license.

To qualify for a license as a physician, an applicant shall fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Application: file an application with the department;
  2. Education: have received an education, including a degree of doctor of medicine, "M.D.", or doctor of osteopathy, "D.O.", or equivalent degree in accordance with the commissioner's regulations;
  3. Experience: have experience satisfactory to the board and in accordance with the commissioner's regulations;
  4. Examination: pass an examination satisfactory to the board and in accordance with the commissioner's regulations;
  5. Age: be at least twenty-one years of age; however, the commissioner may waive the age requirement for applicants who have attained the age of eighteen and will be in a residency program until the age of twenty-one;
  6. Citizenship or immigration status: be a United States citizen or an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States; provided, however that the board of regents may grant a three year waiver for an alien physician to practice in an area which has been designated by the department as medically underserved, except that the board of regents may grant an additional extension not to exceed six years to an alien physician to enable him or her to secure citizenship or permanent resident status, provided such status is being actively pursued; and provided further that the board of regents may grant an additional three year waiver, and at its expiration, an extension for a period not to exceed six additional years, for the holder of an H-1b visa, an O-1 visa, or an equivalent or successor visa thereto;
  7. Character: be of good moral character as determined by the department; and
  8. Fees: pay a fee of two hundred sixty dollars to the department for admission to a department conducted examination and for an initial license, a fee of one hundred seventy-five dollars for each reexamination, a fee of one hundred thirty-five dollars for an initial license for persons not requiring admission to a department conducted examination, a fee of five hundred seventy dollars for any biennial registration period commencing August first, nineteen hundred ninety-six and thereafter. The comptroller is hereby authorized and directed to deposit the fee for each biennial registration period into the special revenue funds-other entitled "professional medical conduct account" for the purpose of offsetting any expenditures made pursuant to section two hundred thirty of the public health law in relation to the operation of the office of professional medical conduct within the department of health, provided that for each biennial registration fee paid by the licensee using a credit card, the amount of the administrative fee
    incurred by the department in processing such credit card transaction shall be deposited by the comptroller in the office of the professions account established by section ninety-seven-nnn of the state finance law. The amount of the funds expended as a result of such increase shall not be greater than such fees collected over the registration period.
  9. For every license or registration issued after the effective date of this subdivision, an additional fee of thirty dollars shall be paid and deposited in the special revenue fund entitled "the professional medical conduct account" for the purpose of offsetting any expenditures made pursuant to subdivision fifteen of section two hundred thirty of the public health law. The amount of such funds expended for such purpose shall not be greater than such additional fees collected over the licensure period or for the duration of such program if less than the licensure period.
  10. A physician shall not be required to pay any fee under this section if he or she certifies to the department that for the period of registration or licensure, he or she shall only practice medicine without compensation or the expectation or promise of compensation. The following shall not be considered compensation for the purposes of this subdivision: (a) nominal payment solely to enable the physician to be considered an employee of a health care provider, or (b) providing liability coverage to the physician relating to the services provided.
  11. No physician may be re-registered unless he or she, as part of the re-registration application, includes an attestation made under penalty of perjury, in a form prescribed by the commissioner, that he or she has, within the six months prior to submission of the re-registration application, updated his or her physician profile in accordance with subdivision four of section twenty-nine hundred ninety-five-a of the public health law.

§6525. Limited permits.

Permits limited as to eligibility, practice and duration, shall be issued by the department to eligible applicants, as follows:

  1. Eligibility: The following persons shall be eligible for a limited permit:
    • (1) A person who fulfills all requirements for a license as a physician except those relating to the examination and citizenship or permanent residence in the United States;
    • (2) A foreign physician who holds a standard certificate from the educational council for foreign medical graduates or who has passed an examination satisfactory to the state board for medicine and in accordance with the commissioner's regulations; or
    • (3) A foreign physician or a foreign intern who is in this country on a non-immigration visa for the continuation of medical study, pursuant to the exchange student program of the United States department of state.
  2. Limit of practice. A permittee shall be authorized to practice medicine only under the supervision of a licensed physician and only in a public, voluntary, or proprietary hospital.
  3. Duration. A limited permit shall be valid for two years. It may be renewed biennially at the discretion of the department.
  4. Fees. The fee for each limited permit and for each renewal shall be one hundred five dollars.

§6526. Exempt persons.

The following persons under the following limitations may practice medicine within the state without a license:

  1. Any physician who is employed as a resident in a public hospital, provided such practice is limited to such hospital and is under the supervision of a licensed physician;
  2. Any physician who is licensed in a bordering state and who resides near a border of this state, provided such practice is limited in this state to the vicinity of such border and provided such physician does not maintain an office or place to meet patients or receive calls within this state;
  3. Any physician who is licensed in another state or country and who is meeting a physician licensed in this state, for purposes of consultation, provided such practice is limited to such consultation;
  4. Any physician who is licensed in another state or country, who is visiting a medical school or teaching hospital in this state to receive medical instruction for a period not to exceed six months or to conduct medical instruction, provided such practice is limited to such instruction and is under the supervision of a licensed physician;
  5. Any physician who is authorized by a foreign government to practice in relation to its diplomatic, consular or maritime staffs, provided such practice is limited to such staffs;
  6. Any commissioned medical officer who is serving in the United States armed forces or public health service or any physician who is employed in the United States Veterans Administration, provided such practice is limited to such service or employment;
  7. Any intern who is employed by a hospital and who is a graduate of a medical school in the United States or Canada, provided such practice is limited to such hospital and is under the supervision of a licensed physician; or
  8. Any medical student who is performing a clinical clerkship or similar function in a hospital and who is matriculated in a medical school which meets standards satisfactory to the department, provided such practice is limited to such clerkship or similar function in such hospital.
  9. Any dentist or dental school graduate eligible for licensure in the state who administers anesthesia as part of a hospital residency program established for the purpose of training dentists in anesthesiology.

§6527. Special provisions.

  1. A not-for-profit medical or dental expense indemnity corporation or a hospital service corporation organized under the insurance law may employ licensed physicians and enter into contracts with partnerships or medical corporations organized under article forty-four of the public health law, health maintenance organizations possessing a certificate of authority pursuant to article forty-four of the public health law, professional corporations organized under article fifteen of the business corporation law or other groups of physicians to practice medicine on its behalf for persons insured under its contracts or policies.
  2. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law, any licensed physician who voluntarily and without the expectation of monetary compensation renders first aid or emergency treatment at the scene of an accident or other emergency, outside a hospital, doctor's office or any other place having proper and necessary medical equipment, to a person who is unconscious, ill or injured, shall not be liable for damages for injuries alleged to have been sustained by such person or for damages for the death of such person alleged to have occurred by reason of an act or omission in the rendering of such first aid or emergency treatment unless it is established that such injuries were or such death was caused by gross negligence on the part of such physician. Nothing in this subdivision shall be deemed or construed to relieve a licensed physician from liability for damages for injuries or death caused by an act or omission on the part of a physician while rendering professional services in the normal and ordinary course of his practice.
  3. No individual who serves as a member of (a) a committee established to administer a utilization review plan of a hospital, including a hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of the public health law or a hospital as defined in subdivision ten of section 1.03 of the mental hygiene law, or (b) a committee having the responsibility of the investigation of an incident reported pursuant to section 29.29 of the mental hygiene law or the evaluation and improvement of the quality of care rendered in a hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of the public health law or a hospital as defined in subdivision ten of section 1.03 of the mental hygiene law, or (c) any medical review committee or subcommittee thereof of a local, county or state medical, dental, podiatry or optometrical society, any such society itself, a professional standards review organization or an individual when such committee, subcommittee, society, organization or individual is performing any medical or quality assurance review function including the investigation of an incident reported pursuant to section 29.29 of the mental hygiene law, either described in clauses (a) and (b) of this subdivision, required by law, or involving any controversy or dispute between (i) a physician, dentist, podiatrist or optometrist or hospital administrator and a patient concerning the diagnosis, treatment or care of such patient or the fees or charges therefor or (ii) a physician, dentist, podiatrist or optometrist or hospital administrator and a provider of medical, dental, podiatric or optometrical services concerning any medical or health charges or fees of such physician, dentist, podiatrist or optometrist, or (d) a committee appointed pursuant to section twenty-eight hundred five-j of the public health law to participate in the medical and dental malpractice prevention program, or (e) any individual who participated in the preparation of incident reports required by the department of health pursuant to section twenty-eight hundred five-l of the public health law, or (f) a committee established to administer a utilization review plan, or a committee having the responsibility of evaluation and improvement of the quality of care rendered, in a health maintenance organization organized under article forty-four of the public health law or article forty-three of the insurance law, including a committee of an individual practice association or medical group acting pursuant to a contract with such a health maintenance organization, shall be liable in damages to any person for any action taken or recommendations made, by him within the scope of his function in such capacity provided that (a) such individual has taken action or made recommendations within the scope of his function and without malice, and (b) in the reasonable belief after reasonable investigation that the act or recommendation was warranted, based upon the facts disclosed. Neither the proceedings nor the records relating to performance of a medical or a quality assurance review function or participation in a medical and dental malpractice prevention program nor any report required by the department of health pursuant to section twenty-eight hundred five-l of the public health law described herein, including the investigation of an incident reported pursuant to section 29.29 of the mental hygiene law, shall be subject to disclosure under article thirty-one of the civil practice law and rules except as hereinafter provided or as provided by any other provision of law. No person in attendance at a meeting when a medical or a quality assurance review or a medical and dental malpractice prevention program or an incident reporting function described herein was performed, including the investigation of an incident reported pursuant to section 29.29 of the mental hygiene law, shall be required to testify as to what transpired thereat. The prohibition relating to discovery of testimony shall not apply to the statements made by any person in attendance at such a meeting who is a party to an action or proceeding the subject matter of which was reviewed at such meeting.
  4. This article shall not be construed to affect or prevent the following:
    1. The furnishing of medical assistance in an emergency;
    2. The practice of the religious tenets of any church;
    3. A physician from refusing to perform an act constituting the practice of medicine to which he is conscientiously opposed by reason of religious training and belief.
    4. The organization of a medical corporation under article forty-four of the public health law, the organization of a university faculty practice corporation under section fourteen hundred twelve of the not-forprofit corporation law or the organization of a professional service corporation under article fifteen of the business corporation law.
    5. The physician's use of whatever medical care, conventional or nonconventional, which effectively treats human disease, pain, injury, deformity or physical condition.
  5. There shall be no monetary liability on the part of, and no cause of action for damages shall arise against, any person, partnership, corporation, firm, society, or other entity on account of the communication of information in the possession of such person or entity, or on account of any recommendation or evaluation, regarding the qualifications, fitness, or professional conduct or practices of a physician, to any governmental agency, medical or specialists society, a hospital as defined in article twenty-eight of the public health law, a hospital as defined in subdivision ten of section 1.03 of the mental hygiene law, or a health maintenance organization organized under article forty-four of the public health law or article forty-three of the insurance law, including a committee of an individual practice association or medical group acting pursuant to a contract with a health maintenance organization. The foregoing shall not apply to information which is untrue and communicated with malicious intent.
  6. A licensed physician may prescribe and order a non-patient specific regimen to a registered professional nurse, pursuant to regulations promulgated by the commissioner, and consistent with the public health law, for:
    1. administering immunizations.
    2. the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis.
    3. administering purified protein derivative (PPD) tests.
    4. administering tests to determine the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus.
  7. * A licensed physician may prescribe and order a non-patient specific regimen to a licensed pharmacist, pursuant to regulations promulgated by the commissioner, and consistent with the public health law, for administering immunizations. Nothing in this subdivision shall authorize unlicensed persons to administer immunizations, vaccines or other drugs.
    * NB Repealed March 31, 2012
  8. Nothing in this article shall prohibit the provision of psychotherapy as defined in subdivision two of section eighty-four hundred one of this title to the extent permissible within the scope of practice of medicine, by any not-for-profit corporation or education corporation providing services within the state of New York and operating under a waiver pursuant to section sixty-five hundred three-a of this title, provided that such entities offering such psychotherapy services shall only provide such services through an individual appropriately licensed or otherwise authorized to provide such services or a professional entity authorized by law to provide such services.

§6528. Qualification of certain applicants for licensure.

  1. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this article or any law to the contrary, an individual who at the time of his enrollment in a medical school outside the United States is a resident of the United States shall be eligible for licensure in this state if he has satisfied the requirements of subdivisions one, five, six, seven and eight of section sixty-five hundred twenty-four of this chapter and:
    1. has studied medicine in a medical school located outside the United States which is recognized by the World Health Organization;
    2. has completed all of the formal requirements of the foreign medical school except internship and/or social service;
    3. has attained a score satisfactory to a medical school approved by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education on a qualifying examination acceptable to the state board for medicine, and has satisfactorily completed one academic year of supervised clinical training under the direction of such medical school;
    4. has completed the post-graduate hospital training required by the Board of all applicants for licensure; and
    5. has passed the examination required by the Board of all applicants for licensure.
  2. Satisfaction of the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subdivision (a) of this section shall be in lieu of the completion of any foreign internship and/or social service requirements, and no such requirements shall be a condition of licensure as a physician in this State.
  3. Satisfaction of the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subdivision (a) of this section shall be in lieu of certification by the Educational Council for Foreign Medical Graduates, and such certification shall not be a condition of licensure as a physician in this State for candidates who have completed the requirements of subdivision (a) of this section.
  4. No hospital licensed by this State, or operated by the State or a political subdivision thereof, or which receives state financial assistance, directly or indirectly, shall require an individual who has satisfied the requirements of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subdivision (a) of this section, and who at the time of his enrollment in a medical school outside the United States is a resident of the United States, to satisfy any further education or examination requirements prior to commencing an internship or residency.
  5. A document granted by a medical school located outside the United States which is recognized by the World Health Organization issued after the completion of all the formal requirements of such foreign medical school except internship and/or social service shall, upon certification by the medical school in which such training was received of satisfactory completion by the person to whom such document was issued of the requirements listed in paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of this section, be deemed the equivalent of a degree of doctor of medicine for purposes of licensure and practice as a physician in this State.

§6529. Power of board of regents regarding certain physicians.

Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the board of regents is authorized, in its discretion, to confer the degree of doctor of medicine (M.D.) upon physicians who are licensed pursuant to section sixty-five hundred twenty-four or sixty-five hundred twenty-eight of this chapter. Each applicant shall pay a fee of three hundred dollars to the education department for the issuance of such degree.

Last Updated: November 14, 2011